Gem Reference Table

 

Gem Stone Name: Crystal System: Chemical Composition: Refractive Index Birefringence: Optic Sign Optic character S.G: H: Pleochrism: Country of Origin:
Actinolite Hexagonal Ca2(Mg,Fe++)

5Si8O22(OH)2.

1.618 – 1.641 3.0 – 3.2 5 — 6 Burma (Myanmar) ,Tanzania
ActinoliteCat Eye Hexagonal Ca2(Mg,Fe++)5Si8O22(OH)2. 1.618 – 1.641 3.0 – 3.2 6 — 6
ActinoliteCeylon(Sri Lanka) Hexagonal Ca2(Mg,Fe++)5Si8O22(OH)2. 1.618 – 1.641 3.0 – 3.2 7 — 6 Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
ActinoliteTanzania Hexagonal Ca2(Mg,Fe++)5Si8O22(OH)2. 1.618 – 1.641 3.0 – 3.2 8 — 6 Tanzania
Adamite Orthorhomic Zinc 45.61 % Zn56.78 % ZnO 1.72 – 1.76 4.32 – 4.48 3.5 Mexico
Aeschynite Orthorhomic (Nd,Ce,Ca)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6 2.20 – 2.40 5.19 5 — 6 Norway
Afghanite Hexagonal (Si,Al)12O24(SO4,Cl,CO3)3•

(H2O).

1.7 to 1.799 0-0150 to 0.0159 2.56 – 2.65 5.5 – 6 pale blue Afghanistan
Agate Hexagonal SiO2 1.53 – 1.55 0.005 – 0.009 2.60 7 none Mexico
AgateBanded Hexagonal SiO2 1.53 – 1.55 0.005 – 0.009 2.60 7 none Mexico
AgateDendritic Hexagonal SiO2 1.53 – 1.55 0.005 – 0.009 2.60 7 none Turkey, Brazil
Agate Moss Hexagonal SiO2 1.53 – 1.55 0.005 – 0.009 2.60 7 none Brazil
Albite Triclinic NaAlSi3O8 1.52 to 1.54 0.011 Positive B 3.5 – 3.84 6 – 6.5 Kenya, India
AlbiteCateye Triclinic NaAlSi3O8 1.52 to 1.55 3.5 – 3.84 6 – 6.5 Kenia, India
Alexandrite Orthorhomic BeAl2O4 1.747 – 1.757 3.5 – 3.84 8.5 Brazil,
AlexandriteCat Eye Orthorhomic BeAl2O4 1.747 – 1.758 3.5 – 3.85 9.5 Brazil
Allanite Monoclinic (Ce) 1.74 2.89 6 pale blue Amherst Virginia U.S.A.
Alunite Trigonal KAl3(SO4)2

(OH)6.

1.56 0.015 2.7 – 2.80 3.5 – 4 Brazil
Amazonite Triclinic KAlSi3O8 1.514 – 1.539 2.56 – 2.58 6 – 6.5 Pikes Peak, Teller County, Colorado USA
Amber Amorphous [C,H,O] 1.54 1 1.05 – 1.10 2 – 2.5 Baltic Sea
Amblygonite Triclinic (Li,Na)Al(PO4)(F,OH). 1.611 – 1.637 1 5.015 – 3.033 6 Celon (Sri Lanka), Burma (Myanmar) Brazil
Ammolite Fossilized, Mineralized (CaCO3) 1.52 – 1.68 1.55 2.7 4.5 – 5.5 None
Analcite Cubic NaAlSi2O6 – H2O 1.487 0.015 2.24 – 2.29 5 – 5.5
Anatase Trigonal TiO2. 2.493 – 2.554 0.061 Negitive U 3.82 – 3.95 5.5 – 6 Switzerland, Brazil
Andalusite Orthorhomic Al2SiO5 = Al[6]Al[5]OSiO4 1.634 – 1.644 1.641 – 1.648 0.007 – 0.011 Negitive B 3.15 – 3.17 7.5 Brazil,Sri Lanka.
Andesine Triclinic Na0,7-0,5 Ca0,3-0,5Al1,3-1,5 Si2,7-2,5 O8 1.543 – 1.554 2.68 – 2.71 6 Congo
Anglesite Orthorhomic PbSO4. 1.87 – 1.89 6.40 2.5 – 3 Morocco
Anhydrite Monoclinic CaSO4. 1.571 – 1.614 2.899 – 2.985 3 Peru
Anothite Triclinic CO2 1.7 – 1.788 0.015 2.60 3 Brazil
Apatite Hexagonal Ca5(PO4)3

(OH,F,Cl)

1.63 – 1.64 0.002 Negitive U 3.17 – 3.23 5 Mixico, Brazil, U.S.A. Canada Madagascar.Myanmar, Brazil, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Tanzania, Zimbabwe
Apatite withActinolite Hexagonal Ca5(PO4)3

(OH,F,Cl)

1.63-1.64 0.002 Negitive U 3.17-3.23 5 Pakinstan
Apatite Purple Hexagonal Ca5(PO4)3

(OH,F,Cl).

1.63 – 1.64 3.17 – 3.23 5 Main U.S.A.
Apophyllite Tetragonal NaCa4Si8O20F•

8(H2O).

1.535 – 1.537 0.002 Pos/Neg U 2.30 – 2.50 4.5 – 5 India
Aragonite Monoclinic CaCO3 1.530 – 1.685 2.93 – 2.95 3.5 – 4 Morocco
Arfedsonite Monoclinic Na3Mg4Fe+(Si8O22)OH)2 1.652 – 1.699 1.666 – 1.708 0.014 3.17 5.5 – 6 Namibia, Tanzania, Czechoslovakia,
Augite Monoclinic (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al,Ti)(Si,Al)2O6 1-680 – 1.703 1.706-1.729 0.026 3.20 – 3.6 5 – 6.5 Italy, Brazil
Augelite Monoclinic Al 2(P O 4)(O H )3. 1.57 – 1.58 1.57 – 1.58 0.014 Positive B 2.69 4.5 – 5 California, U.S.A
Axinite Trigonal CaCO3. 1.675 – 1.685 0.01 Negitive B 3.27 – 3.29 7 Namibia, Tanzania, Czechoslovakia,
Azurite Monoclinic Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. 1.73 – 1.84 0.11 Positive B 3.77 – 3.89 3.5 – 4 S.W.Africa
Baddeleyite Monoclinic Zr O2 2.13 -2.20 5.74 6.5 Ceyon ( Sri Lanka )
Bahianite Monoclinic Al5Sb3O14(OH)2 1.810 – 1.920 0.01 4.89 – 5.46 9 Brazil
Barite Orthorhomic BaSO4. 1.636 – 1.648 4.3 – 4.6 3 — 4 Namibia, Kenya, U.S.A. Canada, United Kingdom, France, Norway,
Barrerite Orthorhomic (Na,K,Ca)

2Al2Si7O18•6(H2O)

1.478. 1.493 2.13 3 — 4 Alaska
Bastnäsite Hexagonal (Y, Ce)CO 3 F 1.717 – 1.722 1.818 – 1.823 4.95 – 5 4 — 5 Pakistan
Bayldonite Monoclinic (Cu, Zn)3Pb(AsO4)2

(OH)2

1.7 – 1.799 0.015 5.24 – 5.65 4.5 St Hilary. County Canada
Bemenite Orthorhomic Cu3Pb(AsO4)

2-H2O

1.7 -1.799 0.015 4.5 – 5 Erie County, Ohio. U.S.A.
Benitoite Tetragonal BaTiSi3O9 1.757 – 1.804 0.047 Positive B 2.63 – 2.80 6.5 U.S.A.
Beryl Aquarine Hexagonal Be3Al2SiO6 1.570 – 1.575 1.580 – 1.586 0.014 2.68 – 2.71 7.5 Brazil, Madagascar, India Ukraine, India, Kenya, Namibia, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Nigeria Myanam
Beryl Goshenite Hexagonal Be3Al2SiO6 1.570 – 1.575 1.580 – 1.586 0.014 2.68 – 2.71 7.5 Brazil, Madagascar, India Ukraine, India, Kenya, Namibia, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Nigeria Myanam
Beryl Bixbite Hexagonal Be3Al2(SiO3)6 1.577 – 1.583 0.017 2.63 – 2.80 7.5 Brazil, Madagascar, India Ukraine, India, Kenya, Namibia, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Nigeria Myanam
Beryl Emerlad Hexagonal Be3Al2(SiO3)6 1.577 – 1.571 0.006 2.69 7.5 Brazil, Madagascar, India Ukraine, India, Kenya, Namibia, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Nigeria Myanam
Beryl EmerladTrapachie Hexagonal Be3Al2(SiO3)6 1.577 – 1.572 2.63 – 2.80 7.5 Brazil, Madagascar, India Ukraine, India, Kenya, Namibia, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Nigeria Myanam
Beryl Heliodor Hexagonal Be3Al2SiO6 1.57 0.015 2.63 – 2.80 7.5 Brazil, Madagascar, India Ukraine, India, Kenya, Namibia, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Nigeria Myanam
Beryl Maxixe Hexagonal Be3Al2SiO6 1.570 – 1.577 2.63 – 2.80 7.5
Beryl Morganite Hexagonal Be3Al2SiO7 1.580 – 1.590 1.590 – 1.600 0.008 – 0.009 2.63 – 2.80 7.5 Brazil, Madagascar, India Ukraine, India, Kenya, Namibia, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Nigeria Myanam
Beryllonite Monoclinic NaBePO4. 1.553 – 1.562 0.009 Negative B 2.80 -2.85 5 U.S.A
Betafite Cubic (Ca,Na,U)2 (Ti,Nb,Ta)2O6 (OH) 1.92 Positive B 3.00 – 5.50 5 – 5.5 Madagascar
Black Diamond Cubic C 2.417 – 2.419 3.52 10 Africe, Anglo, U.S.S.R.
Bloedite Monoclinic Na2 Mg (SO4)2 4H2 O 1.48 2 .5 – 3 2.5 Soda Lake, San Luis Obispo County U.S.A.
Boleite Cubic Pb26 Ag10 Cu24 +2 Cl62 (OH)48 3H2 O 2.04 – 2.09 5.50 3 – 3.5 England, Czech Republic, China,
Boracite Cubic Mg3B7O13Cl 1.66 – 1.67 I 2.96 7 United Kindom
Brazilianite Monoclinic NaAl3(PO4)2

(OH)4,

1.603 – 1.623 0.020 Positive B 2.98 – 2.99 5.5 Brazil
Brookite Orthorhomic TiO2. 2.583 -2.705 0.122 0.122 4 5.5 -6 United Kindom
Brucite Trigonal Mg (OH)2 1.55 – 1.60 U.S.A
Burbankite Hexagonal (Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba 1.615 – 1.627 3.77 3 Arkansa U.S.A.
Bustamite Trigonal (Mn,Ca) 1.64 – 1.71 3.0 – 3.4 5 –6 Mine, Broken Hill, Australia
Bytownite Trigonal Mg (OH)2 2.74 – 2.75 2.74 – 2.76 6 — 6.5 Mexico
Calcite Trigonal mCa Al2 Si2 O8 1.486 – 1.658 0.172 Negative U 2.71 3 Kenya, , Russia, U.S.A. Spain, Mexico, United Kindon, Canada,
Cancrinite Tetragonal Na6Ca2Al6Si6

O24(CO3)2. .

1.2 – 3 2.4 – 2.5 5 –6 Canada
Cassiterite Tetragonal SnO2 2.003 – 2.101 6.80 6.5 Tanzania, Australia, United Kindon,Bolivia,Namibia, Sri Lanka, Pura, China
Cavansite Orthorhombic Ca(VO)Si4O10•

4(H2O). = 451.42

1.54 – 1.55 2.33 3 — 4 U.S.A
Celestine Orthorhombic SrSO4. 1.625 – 1.635 0.01 Positiv B 3.95 – 3.97 3.5 Namibia, Madagascar, Switzerland
Cerussite Orthorhomic PbCO3. 2.7 0.015 3.5 Namibia, Morocco
Chabazite Trigonal (K2,Ca,Na2,Mg)[Al2Si4O12]•

6(H2O).

1.2 – 3 2.0 – 2.2 4 — 5 Barkers Hill, Mont Belvieu, Chambers County, Texas, USA
Chalcanthite Trigonal Cu+2 SO4 5H2 O 1.51 – 1.54 2.2 – 2.3 2.5 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, American. Poland
Chalcedony Tetragonal SiO2. 1.56 – 1.59 0.004 Negative B 2.58 – 2.62 7 Congo, The Democratic Republic Of The, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Chambersite Orthorhomic Mn3B7O13Cl 1.732 – 1.744 3.48 7 Barbers Hill Salt Dome / Mont Belvieu / Chambers County / Texas / USA …
Charlesite Trigonal Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)

2B(OH)4(OH,O)12•26(H2O).

1.2 – 3 1.79 2.5 Franklin and Sterling Hill, Sussex County USA
Charoite Monoclinic K (Ca,Na)2 Si4 O10 (OH,F) 1.55 – 1.59 2.60 5 RIV. CHARO, MASSIF DE MURUN, ALDAN, YAKOUTIE; Country Russia
Chatoyant Pietersite Orthorhombic (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 1.654 3.34 China and Namibia,Africa
Childrenite Orthorhombic Fe++Al(PO4)(OH)2•(H2O). 1.7 – 1.799 0.015 Brazil
Chlorastrolite Trigonal Ca2(Al, Mg 1.2 -3 U.S.A
Chondrodite Monoclinic (Mg,Fe++)5(SiO4)

2(F,OH)2.

1.6 Positive B 3.1 – 3.2 6.5 Mogok / Sagaing Distr. / Mandalay / Myanmar
Chromite Isometric Fe++Cr2O4 1.2 – 3 4.5 – 4.8 U.S.A
Chrome Grandite Garnet cubic 3.6 6-6.5
Chrysoberyl Orthorhomic BeAl2O4 1.7 – 1.799 0.015 Positive B 3.7 – 3.72 8.5 Brazil, Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Chrysoberyl Cat Eye Orthorhomic BeAl2O4 1.7 – 1.799 0.015 Positive B 3.7 – 3.72 8.5 Brazil, Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Chrysocolla Amorphous (MnCO2) 1.5 0.015 2 — 4 Porterville, Tulare County, Calif.USA
Chrysophase Hexagonal SiO2 1.53 -1.54 0.004 2.58 – 2.64 7 U.S.A
Cinnabar Trigonal HgS 3.2 8.998 2 – 2.5 China
Clinohumite Isometric (Mg,Fe++)9(SiO4)

4(F,OH)2.

1.625 – 1.668 Italy
Clinozoisite Monoclinic (SiO4)3(OH) = Ca2AlAl2(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). 1-72 – 1.73 0.01 Positive B 3.37 6.5 Mexico, Kenya, U.S.A.
Cobaltocalcite Hexagonal (Ca,Co)CO3. 1.60 – 1.855 4.13 4 Spain
Columbite Orthorhomic FeNb2O5-FeTaO5-MnNb2O5-MnTa2O5 1.8
Colemanite Monoclinic Ca2B6O11•

5(H2O).

1.58 – 1.61 0.028 Positive B 2.42 4.5 DEATH VALLEY, INYO CO., California USA
Copal Amorphous 1.2 – 3
Coral from the ocean 1.678 – 1.772 1.76 0.008 2.70 3.5
Cornelian Trigonal SiO2 1.543 – 1.552 New Zealand
Corundum Trigonal TiO2 1.77 Burma, Ceylon, Africa
Covellite Hexagonal CuS 1.2 – 3 4.6 – 4.8 Rio Grande County, Colorado.U.S.A.
Creedite Monoclinic Ca3Al2(SO4)(F,OH)10•2(H2O). 1.46 -1.48 Czech Republic
Crocidolite Monoclinic (O, OH, 2.36 Africa
Crocoite Monoclinic PbCrO4 2.36 2.5 – 3 Australia
Cryolite Monoclinic Na3 Al F6 1.338 Denmark
Crysocolla Tetragonal Cu2(CO3)(OH)2. 1.662 2.10 United Kindom
Cuprite Cubic Cu2O 2.84 4 Namibia, Australia.
Danburite Orthorhomic CaB2(SiO4)2. 1.630 – 1.636 0.006 Negitive B 3 7 U.S.A, Sri Lanka
Datolite Monoclinic CaBSiO4(OH). 1.625 – 1.669 0.044 Negitive B 2.90 – 3.00 5 U.S.A.
Diamond Cubic C 2.42 3.52 10 Africa & Russia
Diaspore Tetragonal MnO 1.2 – 3 0.030 Positive B 3.29 5.5 Turkey
Diopside Monoclinic CaMgSi2O6 1.67 – 1.70 0.030 Positive B 3.29 5.5 India, Austria
Diopside Star Monoclinic CaMgSi2O6 1.67 – 1.70 India
Diotase Trigonal CuSiO2(OH)2. 1.644 – 1.692 1.658 – 1.709 0.053 Positive U 3.28 – 3.35 5 Tsumeb S.W.Africa
Dipyre Tetragonal Fe2O3 1.502 – 1.681 U.S.A.
Dolomite Trigonal CaMg(CO3)2. 1.50 – 1.67 Spain
Dravite Trigonal Na(Al,Fe,Li,Mg 1.61 – 1.66 Austrialia
Dumortierite Orthorhomic (BO3)(SiO4)

3(O,OH)3

1.68 B 3.26 – 3.41 7 Lyon France
Dunilite Orthorhomic (Ca,Na)2 (Al, Mg, Fe2+ Fe+3)6 (Si,B,Al)6 O20 1.7 – 1.72 0.03 3.46 7.5 ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Durangite Monoclinic NaAl(AsO4)F. 2.09 U.S.A.
Ekanite Amorphous ThCa2Si8O20. 1.56 – 1.59 3.28 6 – 6.5 Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Elbaite Trigonal (BO3)3Si6O18(OH)4. 1.635 – 1.650 Brazil
Endlichite Hexagonal As]04)3Cl. 2.350-2.416 0.066 6.8 – 7.1 3 – 4 Moroco
Enstatite Orthorhomic (Mg 2Si 2O 6) 1.663 – 1.673 0.01 Positive B 3.26 – 3.28 5.5 Germany, Norway
Epidote Monoclinic (SiO4)3(OH) = Ca2(Fe,Al)Al2(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). 1.736 – 1.770 0.034 Negative B 3.25 – 3.50 6.5 France, United Kindon
Epidote Chrome Monoclinic (SiO4)3(OH) = Ca2(Fe,Al)Al2(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). 1.736 – 1.770 France, United Kindon
Ettringite Hexagonal Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12•26(H2O). 1.47 – 1.49 1.77 2-2.5 ALLEMAGNE
Euclase Monoclinic BeAlSiO4(OH). 1.652 – 1.672 0.02 3.18 7.5 Brazil
Euxenite Orthorhomic (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th) (Nb,Ta,Ti)2 O6 Madagascar
Feldspar Bytownite Triclinic (Ca,Na)(Si,Al)4O8 1.56-1.58 DURANGO, MEXICO
Feldspar Spectrlite Triclinic Canada
Feldspar Albite Triclinic NaAlSi3O8 Iraqi, U.S.A.
Feldspar Labrodorite Triclinic Na0,5-0,3 Ca0,5-0,7 Al1,5-1,7 Si2,5-2,3 O8 1.55-1.57 U.S.A
Feldspar Oligoclase Triclinic (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8 1.522 – 1.527 U.S.A
Feldspar Sunstone Triclinic (Na, Ca) Al 1-2 Si 3-2 O8 1.52 – 1.53 1.53 – 1.54 0.008 U.S.A.
Fibrolite Orthorhomic  Al2SiO5 1.66 – 1-68 0.02 Positive B 3.25 7.5 Celon (Sri Lanka), Burma (Myanmar)
Fibrolite Cat Eye Orthorhomic 1.434 0.02 Positive B 3.25 4 Celon (Sri Lanka), Burma (Myanmar)
Fluorite ( Belgium) Cubic CaF2 1.434 1 3.18 4 Belgium
Fluorite ( Burma) Cubic CaF2 1.434 1 3.18 4 Burma
Fluorite ( Canada) Cubic CaF2 1.434 1 3.18 4 Canada
Fluorite ( China) Cubic CaF2 1.434 1 3.18 4 China
Fluorite ( England) Cubic CaF2 1.434 1 3.18 4 England
Fluorite ( Germany) Cubic CaF2 1.434 1 3.18 4 Germany
Fluorite ( Mexico) Cubic CaF2 1.434 1 3.18 4 Mexico
Fluorite ( Namibia) Cubic CaF2 1.434 1 3.18 4 Namibia
Fluorite ( Pink Switzerland) Cubic CaF2 1.434 1 3.18 4 Switzerland
Fluorite ( Tanzania ) Cubic CaF2 1.434 1 3.18 4 U.S.A.
Fluorite ( U.S.A.) Cubic CaF2 1.434 1 3.18 4 U.S.A.
Fluorite (Afghanistan) Cubic CaF2 1.434 1 3.18 4 Afghanistan
Fluoro Richterite Gadolinite (CaNa)Mg5[Si8O22]F2. 2.9 – 3.3 5 –6 Italy
Forsterite Orthorhomic Mg2SiO4. 6.5 -7 6.5-7 Italy
Franklinite Isometric (Zn,Mn++,Fe++)(Fe+++,Mn+++)2O4. 2.36 5.0 – 5.2 6 New Jersey
Friedelite Trigonal Mn8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10. 1.63 – 1.66 0.03 Negitive B 3.05 – 3.07 4 –5 U.S.A.
Gadolinite (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2 Fe+2 Be2 Si2 O10 1.77 – 1.82 4.0 – 4.7 6.5 -7 Texas U.S.A.
Gahnite Cubic ZnAl2O4 1.79 4.55 -4.6 7.5 – 8 U.S.A.
Garnet Almandite Cubic Fe3Al2Si3O12 1.76 4.30 6.5 -7.5 India, Sri Lanka
Garnet Andradite Cubic Ca3Fe2(SiO4)3 3.80 6.5 – 7.5 Korea, Terkey
Garnet Blue Cubic Sri Lanka
Garnet Chrome Grandite Cubic 1.760 – 1780 7 Mali
Garnet Color Change Cubic Sri Lanka,
Garnet Demantoid Cubic Ca3Fe2Si3O12 1.89 3.82 – 3.85 6 — 7 Italy, U.S.S.R, Tanzania
Garnet Demantoid Turky Cubic Ca3Fe2Si3O12 1.81 3.82 – 3.93 6 — 7 Turkey
Garnet Grossularite Cubic Ca3Al2Si3O12 1.72 3.50 6.5 – 7 Tanzania
Garnet Hessonite Cubic Ca3Al2Si3O12 1.742 – 1.748 3.65 Canada, Tanzanite,
Garnet Hydrogrossular Cubic Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4. 1.81 4.15 7 – 7.5 Tokatoka New Zealand
Garnet Melenite Cubic Ca3Fe2(SiO4)3 U.S.A.
Garnet Pyrope Cubic Ca3Al2Si3O12 1.73 – 1.75 3.50 India
Garnet Rhodolite Cubic Ca3Al2Si3O12 1.76 3.84 Africa, Tanzania
Garnet Spessarite Cubic Ca3Al2Si3O12 1.79 – 1.81 4.18 Sri Lanka
Garnet Star Cubic Ca3Al2Si3O12 Idaho U.S.A.
Garnet Topazolite Cubic Ca3Al2Si3O12 U.S.A.
Garnet Tsavorite Cubic Ca3Al2Si3O12 Africa
Garnet Uvarovite Cubic Ca3Al2Si3O12 1.87 I 3.41 – 3.52 Finland
Gaspeite Trigonal (Ni,Mg,Fe++)CO3. 1.61 – 1.83 3.70 4.5 – 5 Australia
Gaylussite Monoclinic Na2Ca(CO3)2•5(H2O). 1.444 – 1.516 1.523 1.9 – 2 2 — 3 Borax Lake, Lake County and China Lake, Kern County,
Genthelvite Isometric Zn4Be3(SiO4)3S. 1.742 3.7 6 . 6.5 Mont Saint-Hilaire / Rouville County / Quebec / Canada
Godolinite (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2 Fe+2 Be2 Si2 O10
Goethite Othorhombic Fe+++O(OH). 2.26 -2.39 3.3 – 4.3 5.5 – 6 ALLEMAGNE
Goosecreekite Monoclinic Ca Al2 Si6 O16 5H2 O 1.49 -1.50 2.4 – 2.5 4 – 4.5 U.S.A
Gorgeyite Monoclinic K2Ca5(SO4)6•(H2O). 1.56 -1.58 2.95 3.5 China
Grandidierite Othorhombic (Mg,Fe++)Al3(BO4)(SiO4)O. 1.59 -1.63 3.16 7 Madagascar
Gypsum Monoclinic CaSO4•2(H2O). 1.519 -1.521 1.59 – 1.530 0.01 Positive B 1.5 – 2.33 Kenya
Hackmanite Cubic Na8Al6Si6O24Cl2 1.2 – 3 2.27 -2.33 5 – 5.6 Montreal, Quebec
Hambergite Othorhombic Be2BO3(OH). 1.553 – 1.625 1.559 – 1.631 0.072 Positive B 2.35 7.5 Madagascar
Hanksite Hexagonal KNa22(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl 2.50 3 -3.5 Afghanistan, Albania, Andorra, Anguilla, Antigua, Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia
Hauyn Isometric 1.496 – 1.51 2.46 – 2.48 5.5 – 6 U.S.A
Hauynite Cubic Fe2O3 1.496 2.40 – 2.5 5 — 6 U.S.A
Hematite Trigonal Fe2O3. 2.78 – 3.01 4.95 – 5.16 6.5 United Kindom
Herderite Monoclinic CaBe(PO4)F 1.61 0.03 Positive B 3 5 Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Heulandite Monoclinic (Ca,Na)2-3Al3(Al,Si)2Si13O36•12(H2O). 1.49 -1.51 2.1 – 2.3 3 — 4 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, India
Hexagonite Monoclinic Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2. 1.60 – 1.63 2.9 – 3.1 5 — 6 Balmat, St. Lawrence County, NY USA
Hornblende Series Monoclinic CaNa(Mg,Fe) 4 (Al,Fe,Ti) 2 . 9 – 3.4 5 — 6 Czech
Howlite Monoclinic Ca2B5SiO9(OH)5. 1.59 0.02 Negative B 2.58 – Canada
Huebnerite Monoclinic MnWO4. 2.170 – 2.220 2.300 – 2.320 0.010- 0.020 Negative B 3.4 – 3.5 5 — 6 Alpine County, California U.S.A.
Garnet Hydrogrossular Cubic Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4. 1.81 4.15 7 – 7.5 Tokatoka New Zealand
Hydrozincite Monoclinic Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 1.747 3.5 – 3.8 2 – 2.5 Nevada U.S.A.
Hypersthene Othorhombic (Mg,Fe)2Si2O6. 1.67 – 1.68 1.71 – 1.73 0.010 – 0.020 Negative B 3.4 – 3.5 5 –6 United Kindon,
Hyalite Amorphous (SiO2). 2.1 5.5-6 Monument Valley Area, Utar, USA
Idocrase Tetragonal Ca10(Mg, Fe)2Al4(SiO4)5(Si2O7)2(OH,F)4 1.700 – 1.712 0.005 Neg/Pos U 3.32 _ 3.47 6.5 U.S.A. Canada, Afghanistan, Albania
Iolite Othorhombic Mg2Al3O 1.53 – 1.54 1.54 – 1.55 0.008 Negative B 2.55 – 2.66 7 – 7.5 India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar,Myanmar, Nepal,
Iron Pyrite Othorhombic FeS2 5.10 6 – 6.5 Elba Italy
Jade Jadeite Monoclinic Ca2(Mg, Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2 1.643 – 1.667 0.013 Positive B 3.30- 3.36 6.50 -7 Burma (Myanmar)
Jade Nephrite Monoclinic Ca2(Mg, Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2 1.60 – 1.63 0.027 Negative B 2.90 -3.02 6.5 China
Jasper Trigonal SiO2 1.54 3.58 -4.06 8 U.S.A.
Jasper Picture Trigonal SiO2 1.54 3.58 – 4.06 8 U.S.A.
Jeremejevite Hexagonal Al6B5O15(F,OH)3. 3.31 7 Erongo Mountains argentites, …
Jet Amorphous Organic Gemstone 1.64 -1.68 1.10 – 1.40 2 – 2.5 United Kingdom
Johachidolite Orthorhombic CaAlB3O7. 3.37 8 — 9 Byant Gyi, Pein Pyit
Kasolite Monoclinic Pb(UO2)SiO4•(H2O). 6.42 4 WORLD WIDE LOCATIONS
Kernite Monoclinic Na2B4O6(OH)2•3(H2O). 1.90 2.5 – 3 Pacific Coast Boron Mine, Boron, Kern County, California, USA
Kornerupine Orthorhombic (Mg,Fe++)4Al6(SiO4,BO4)5(O,OH)2. 1.665 – 1.678 1.668 – 1.680 0.013 Negative B 3.27 – 3.45 6.5 Greenland, Ceylon (Sri – Lanka) Tanznia Burma (Myanmar)
Kornerupine Cateye Orthorhombic (Mg,Fe++)4Al6(SiO4,BO4)5(O,OH)2. 1.665 – 1.678 1.668 – 1.680 0.013 Negative B 3.27 – 3.45 6.5 Greenland, Ceylon (Sri – Lanka) Tanznia Burma (Myanmar)
Kovdorskite Monoclinic Mg5(PO4)2(CO3)(OH)2•4.5(H2O). 2.60 4 Kheleznyi Mine, Kovdor
Kulanite Monoclinic (Fe++,Mn,Mg)2Al2(PO4)3(OH)3 3.90 4 Canada
Kyanite Triclinic (Al2O3.SiO2) 1.715 -1726 1.732 0.017 – 0.020 Negative B 3.65 – 3.69 7 across 5 along Switzerland, U.S.A, India, Kenya
Kyanite Orange Triclinic (Al2O3.SiO2) 1.715 -1726 1.732 0.017 – 0.020 Negative B 3.65 – 3.69 7 across 5 along Tanzania
Labradorite Triclinic Na2O 1.560 – 1.568 2.70 – 2.74 6 – 6.5 Ihosy, Betroka district, Toliara Province, Madagascar
Lapis-Lazuli Isometric (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(S,SO4,Cl)1-2. 1.5 I 2.70 – 2.90 5.5 Badakshan, Afghanistan
Lazulite Monoclinic MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2. 1.615 – 1.645 3.10 5.5 – 6 Malo-Bystrinskoye lazurite deposit, Tunka Valley, Sludyanka, Lake Baikal Region
Leadhillite Monoclinic Pb4(SO4)(CO3)2(OH)2. 6.3 – 6.6 2.5 – 3 Leadhills, Lanark, Scotland.
Legrandite Monoclinic ZnO 4 4.5 – 5 Durango, Mexico.
Lepidolite Monoclinic K(Li,Al)3(Si,Al)4O10(F,OH)2. 1.55 0.026 Negative B 2.8 – 2.9 2.5 – 2.9 Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Leucite cubic KAlSi2O6 1.51 2.47 5.5 – 6 Italy
Liddicoatite Triagonal 1.62-1.63 3.05 7.5 Madagascar
Limonite FeO(OH)·nH2O 2.260-2.398 2.9-4.3 4-4.5
Leucophanite Triclinic (Na,Ca)2BeSi2(O,OH,F)7. 3.86 4 Mont St. Hilaire Canada
Linarite Monoclinic PbCu(SO4)(OH)2 5.30 2.5 Unite Kingdom
Lithiophilite Orthorhomic LiMnPO4. 3.34 4 — 5 Capoeira Mine, near Parelhas, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
Ludlamite Octahedral Fe3O4 5.17-5.18 5.5-6.5 Mexico
Magnetite Trigonal Fe3O4 1.515 – 1.717 5.17-5.18 5.5-6.5 Mexico
Malachit Monoclinic Cu2(CO3)(OH) 1.65 – 1.90 0.25 Negative B 4 3.74 – 3.95 S.W.Africa
Manganoan Adamite Orthorhomic Zn2(AsO4)(OH) 4.4 – 4.5 4.5 Mexico
Manganotantalite Orthorhomic Fe2O3 2.2 – 2.4 7.95 6 Sweden
Magnesio Axinite trigonal Ca MgAl BSi O(OH) 1.650-1.660 3.26-3.36 6.5-7
Marcasite Orthorhomic FeS2. 4.80 6 – 6.5 U.S.A
Maw Sit Sit Monoclinic NaCr[Si2O6] 2.5 – 3.5 6 Burma
Melinophane Trigonal (Ca,Na)2Be[(Si,Al)2O6(F,OH)]. 1.593 – 1.614 0.019 Negative U 3 3.5 Norway
Mesolite Monoclinic Na2 Ca2 Al6 Si9 O30 8H2 O 2.2 – 2.4 5 – 5.5 New Mexico U.S.A.
Meteorite Meteorite Brown Iron Algeria
Microcline Triclinic KAlSi3O8 1.522 – 1.530 0.008 Negative B 2.56 – 2.58 6.5 U.S.A.
Microlite Cubic (Na,Ca)2Ta2O6(O,OH,F). 4.3 – 5.7 5 – 5.5 U.S.A.
Milarite Hexagonal K2Ca4AI2Be4Si24O60·(H2O) 1.529-1.548 1.532-1.551 0.0030-0.0160 2.52 6
Monazite Monoclinic SmPO4. 4.6 – 5.7 5 – 5.5 India
Montebrasite Triclinic LiAl(PO4)(OH,F). 2.98 – 3.1 5 – 5.5 Brazil
Moonstone Triclinic KAISi3O8 1.520 – 1.525 2.56 – 2.59 6 – 6.5 India Cylon ( Sri Lanka )
Moonstone Cat eye Triclinic KAISi3O9 2.34 – 2.39 2.56 – 2.59 6 – 6.5 India Cylon ( Sri Lanka )
Mosaik Jasper Hexagonal Brazil
Mosandrite Monoclinic (Ca,Ce,Y)4(Ti,Nb,Zr)(Si2O7)2(O,F)2F3. 3.29 4 Canada
Moss Agate Hexagonal SiO2 3.58 – 4.06 8 U.S.A.
Musgravite Hexagonal (Mg,Fe2+,Zn)2Al6BeO12 3.6 – 3.62 8 – 8.5 Australia, Mexico
Narsarsukite Tetragonal Na2(Ti,Fe+++)Si4(O,F)11. 2.6 – 2.8 6 — 7 U.S.A.
Natrolite Orthorhomic Na2[Al2Si3O10]•2(H2O). 1.480 – 1.493 0.013 Positive B 2.20 – 2.25 5.5 U.S.A.
Neptunite Trigonal KNa2Li(Fe++,Mn) 1.69 – 1.74 0.027 Negative B 3.23 5.5 U.S.A.
Nifontovite Monoclinic Ca3B6O6(OH)12•2(H2O). 2.36 3.5 Fuka Mine, Bicchu Town
Obsidian Volcanic Glass Volcanic glass 1.48 – 1.51 2.33 – 2.42 5 Volcanic Glass
Oligoclase Triclinic NaAlSi3 O8 1.542 – 1.549 0.005 Negative B 2.56 6 Madagascar
Onyx Trigonal SiO2 1.522 0.007 Negative B 2.62 – 2.65 6 – 6.5 U.S.A. Canada
Opal Amorphous SiO2•n(H2O). 1.44 – 1.46 1.98 – 2.25 5.5 – 6.5 Australia
Opal Black Amorphous SiO2•n(H2O). 1.44 – 1.46 1.98 – 2.25 5.5 – 6.5 Australia
Opal Blue Amorphous SiO2•n(H2O). 1.44 – 1.46 1.98 – 2.25 5.5 – 6.5 Peru
Opal Boulder Opal Amorphous SiO2•n(H2O). 1.44 – 1.46 1.98 – 2.25 5.5 – 6.5 Australia
Opal Dendritic Opal Amorphous SiO2•n(H2O). 1.44 – 1.46 1.98 – 2.25 5.5 – 6.5
Opal Doublet Amorphous SiO2•n(H2O). 1.44 – 1.46 1.98 – 2.25 5.5 – 6.5
Opal Ephiopia Amorphous SiO2•n(H2O). 1.44 – 1.46 1.98 – 2.25 5.5 – 6.5 Ephiopia
Opal Honey Color Cateye Amorphous SiO2•n(H2O). 1.44 – 1.46 1.98 – 2.25 5.5 – 6.5 Australia
Opal Iron Amorphous SiO2•n(H2O). 1.44 – 1.46 1.98 – 2.25 5.5 – 6.5 Australia
Opal Mexican Amorphous SiO2•n(H2O). 1.44 – 1.46 1.98 – 2.25 5.5 – 6.5 Mexico
Opal Tanzanian Amorphous SiO2•n(H2O). 1.44 – 1.46 1.98 – 2.25 5.5 – 6.5 Tanzania
Opal Wood Amorphous SiO2•n(H2O). 1.44 – 1.46 1.98 – 2.25 5.5 – 6.5 Australia
Otherclase Monoclinic Fe2O3 1.52 – 1.53 2.56 6 Madagascar
Painite Hexagonal CaZrB[Al9O18]. 4 8 Burma (Myanmar)
Parisite Hexagonal Ca(Nd,Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2. 4.2 – 4.3 4.5 Narssarssuk Greenland
Pectolite Triclinic NaCa2Si3O8(OH). 1.593 – 1.633 0.038 Positive B 2.74 – 2.88 5 New Jersey, U.S.A.
Periclase Isometric Mg O; 3.60 5.5 Ronneburg Germany
Peridot Burma Brown Orthorhomic (Mg, Fe)2SiO4, 1.654 – 1.671 1.689 0.036 3.3 – 3.4 6.5 Burma (Myanmar)
Peridot Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Orthorhomic (Mg, Fe)2SiO4, 3.3 – 3.4 6.5 Ceylon (Sri – Lanka)
Peridot Czechoslovakia Orthorhomic (Mg, Fe)2SiO4, 3.3 – 3.4 6.5 Czechoslovakia
Peridot Egypt Orthorhomic (Mg, Fe)2SiO4, 3.3 – 3.4 6.5 Egypt
Peridot Norway Orthorhomic (Mg, Fe)2SiO4, 3.3 – 3.4 6.5 Norway
Peridot Pakistan Orthorhomic (Mg, Fe)2SiO4, 3.3 – 3.4 6.5 Pakistan
Peridot Tanzania Orthorhomic (Mg, Fe)2SiO4, 3.3 – 3.4 6.5 Tanzania
Peridot U.S.A Orthorhomic (Mg, Fe)2SiO4, 3.3 – 3.4 6.5 U.S.A
Petalite Monoclinic LiAlSi4O10. 1.504 – 1.516 2.43 6 – 6.5 Brazil
Petalite -Color- Change Monoclinic LiAlSi4O10. 2.43 6 – 6.5 Zimbabwe
Pezzottaite Trigonal Cs(Be2Li) 2.97 8 Argentina
Phenacite Trigonal Be2 SiO4 … 1.654 – 1.670 0.016 Positive U 2.95 -2.97 7.5 – 8 Brazil
Phosgenite Tetragonal (COCl2), 6.30 3 Germany
Phosphophyllite Monoclinic Zn2 (Fe+2,Mn+2) (PO4)2 4H2 O 3.10 3 – 3.5 Bolivia
Pollucite Cubic (Cs,Na)2Al2Si4O12•(H2O). 1.517 – 1.525 I 2.85 – 2.84 6.5 Italy
Poudretteit Hexagonal Fe2O3 Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec
Powellite Tetragonal CaMoO4. 1.517 – 1.525 4.2 – 4.3 3.5 – 4 Idaho U.S.A.
Prehnite Orthorhomic Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2. 1.61 – 1.64 0.03 Positive B 2.80 – 2.95 6 United Kindon, South Africa
Proustite Trigonal Ag3AsS3 5.60 2 – 2.5 Peru
Pseudomalachite Monoclinic CuO Congo
Psilomelane Monoclinic (Ba,H2O)2Mn5O10. 4.4 – 4.5 5 – 5.5 Klondike. Santa Teresa Mountains. Graham County, Arizona U.S.A.
Purpurite Orthorhomic Mn+++PO4. 3.30 4 – 4.5 Arkansas u.s.a.
Pyrargyrite Trigonal Ag3SbS3 5.8 2.5 – 3 Mexico
Pyrite Cubic FeS2. 5.0 -5.2 6 China, Italy
Pyromorphite Hexagonal Pb5(PO4)3Cl. 7 3.5 – 4 U.S.A.
Pyrophyllite Monoclinic & Triclinic Pb5(PO4)3Cl. 2.65 – 2.85 1 – 1.5 Vietnam
Pyroxmangite Triclinic (Mn,Fe++)SiO3. 3.79 5.5 – 6 Japan
Quarts Chalcedony Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 0.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Quartz Agate Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 0.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Quartz Amertrine Quartz Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 1.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Quartz Amethyst Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 2.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Quartz Averturine Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 3.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Quartz Citrine Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 4.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Quartz Prasiolite Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 5.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Quartz Rock Crystal Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 6.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Quartz Rose Quartz Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 7.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Quartz Rutilalted Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 8.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Quartz Smokey Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 9.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Quartz Tiger eye Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 10.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Africa
Quartz Tourmailne in Quartz Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 11.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Quartz with Rutil Trigonal Al2Si4O10(OH)2. 1.54 12.009 Positive U 2.6 – 2.7 7 Brazil
Realgar Monoclinic AsS. 3.5 – 3.6 1.5 – 2 Nevada U.S.A.
Rhodonite Triclinic MnCO3. 1.73 0.01 Positive B 3.37 – 3.70 5.5 – 6 Broken Hill Australia
Rhodizite Cubic (K,Cs)Al4Be4 1.69 I 3.40 8 Madagascar
Rhodochrosite Trigonal MnCO3 1.60 – 1.82 0.33 Negitive U 3.5 – 3.65 4 Argentina
Richterite Monoclinic Na(CaNa)(Mg,Fe++)5[Si8O22](OH)2. 2.9 – 3.3 5 — 6 SAN VITO, MONTE SOMMA, NAPLES, CAMPANIE; Country of Origin ITALIE
Ruby Trigonal SiO2..nH2O 1.760 – 1.768 1.770 – 1.779 0.008 – 0.010 Negitive U 3.90 4 Africa, Burma, Ceylon,
Ruby in Zoisite Orthorhomic Ca2Al3(Sio4)3(OH) Tanzania
Rutile Tetragonal TiO2. 2.62 – 2.90 0.0287 Positive U 4.20 6 — 6.5 North Carolina U.S.A.
Samarskite Orthorhomic (Y,Fe+++,U)(Nb,Ta)5O4. 2.21 B 4.1 – 6-20 5 — 6 Tanzania
Sanbornite Orthorhomic BaSi2O5. 3.80 5 Big Creek, Fresno County U.S.A.
Sanidine Monoclinic (K,Na)(Si,Al)4O8. 2.53 6 India
Sapphire Hexagonal SiO2..nH2O 2.62 – 2.90 0.0287 Positive U 4.20 9 Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Burma Myanmar
Sapphire Star Hexagonal SiO2..nH2O 2.62 – 2.90 0.0287 Positive U 4.20 9 Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Burma Myanmar
Sapphirine Trigonal Mg4Ga8Ge2O20, 1.705 – 1.711 0.006 3.50 9 Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Scapolite Yellow Trigonal Na2O 1.548 – 1.568 0.02 Negative U 2.60 – 2.71 6 Tanzania
Scapolite Cateye White & Pink Trigonal Na2O 1.544 – 1.560 0.02 Negative U 2.60 – 2.71 6 Buma Myanmar
Scheelite Tetragonal CaWO4 1.918 – 1.934 0.016 Positive U 5.9 -6.1 4.5 – 5 Japan, Korea. U.S.A.
Scolecite Monoclinic CaAl2Si3O10•3(H2O). 2.20 5 U.S.A.
Scorzalite Monoclinic (Fe,Mg)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2. 3.40 6 U.S.A.
Selenite Monoclinic CaSO4-2(H2O), 2.30 2 Auckland New Zealand
Serendibite Triclinic Ca2(Mg,Al)6(Si,Al,B)6O20. 3.46 6 — 7 U.S.A.
Serpentine Monoclinic (Mg,Fe,Ni,Al,Zn,Mn)2-3(Si,Al,Fe)2O5(OH)4. 1.57 Negative B 2.2 – 2.6 3 – 4.5 Warren County, New York. U.S.A.
Shortite Orthorhomic Na2Ca2(CO3)3. 2.61 3 WYOMING U.S.A.
Siderite Trigonal – Hexagonal Fe++CO3. 3.90 3.5 – 4.5 Canada, Brazil
Simpsonite Trigonal Al4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH). 6.35 7 – 7.5 Brazil
Sinhalite Orthorhomic MgAlBO4. 1.67 – 1.71 0.038 Negative B 3.47 – 3.49 6.5 Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
smithsonite Trigonal Zn CO3 4.40 4 – 4.5 Tsumeb S.W.Africa
Sodalite Isometric Na8Al6Si6O24Cl2 1.48 1 2.1 – 2.3 5.5 Greenland,
Sodalite uv color change Isometric Na8Al6Si6O24Cl2 1.48 1 2.1 – 2.3 5.5 Greenland,
Soudé Emerlad Man Made
Sphaerocobaltite Hexagonal CoCO3 4.2 4 ALLEMAGNE
Sphalerite Isometric (Zn,Fe)S 4 3.5 – 4 Spain
Sphene Monoclinic CaTiSiO5. 1.883 – 1.990 1.915 – 2.050 0.105 – 0.135 Positive B 3.52 – 3.54 5.5 U.S.A, Mexico
Sphene Chrome Monoclinic CaTiSiO5. 3.52 – 3.54 5.5 U.S.A, Mexico
Spinel Cubic MgAl2O4 1.72 I 3.58 – 3.61 8 Buma Myanmar, Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Spodumine Kunzite Monoclinic LiAl(SiO) 1.660 – 1.73 0.013 Positive B 3.17 – 3.19 7 Brazil.
Spodumine Hiddenite Monoclinic LiAl(SiO) 1.660 – 1.74 1.013 Positive B 3.17 – 3.20 8 Brazil.
Stauroite Monoclinic YC28 1.739 -1.750 0.011 – 0.015 Positive B 3.65 – 3.78 7 – 7.5 Switzerland
Stellerite Orthorhomic CaAl2Si7O18•7(H2O). 2.20 3.5 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria
Stibiotantalite Orthorhomic SbTaO4 7.57 5.5 Japan
Strontium Titanate Man Made SrTiO3 2.41 I 5.13 6
Stichtite Trigonal Mg6 Cr2 (CO3) (OH)16 4H2 O 1.52 – 1.55 0.037 Ngative U 2.15 – 2.22 2.5 DUNDAS, TASMANIE AUSTRALIA
Stolzite Trigonal PbWO4. 8.05 2.5 – 3 Arizona U.S.A.
Sturmanite Trigonal Ca6(Fe+++,Al,Mn++)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12•25(H2O). 1.8 2.5 South Africa
Sugilite Hexagonal KNa2(Fe+++,Mn+++,Al)2Li3Si12O30. 2.75 – 2.8 6 — 6.5 Japan
Sulphur Orthorhomic S8 2 – 2.1 2 Nevada, USA
Sunstone Triclinic (Na,Ca)Al1-2Si3-2O8 1.518-1.552 2.63 – 2.67 6 Oregon U.S.A.
Sussexite Monoclinic MnBO2(OH) 1.67-1.73 3.38 3 Sterling Mine, Ogdensburg, Sussex County, New Jersey, USA. …
Taaffeite Hexagonal Mg3Al8BeO16. 1.718 -1722 0.004 3.60 8 – 8.5 Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Tantalite Orthorhomic MnTa2O6 5.18 – 8.20 6 – 6.5
Tanzanite Orthorhomic Ca2Al3(SiO4)OH 1.692 – 1.70 0.006 – 0.018 3.1 – 3.38 6 – 6.5 Tanzania
Tapiolite Tetragonal (Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb) 2.27 – 2.42 7.9 6 – 6.5 Finland
Tatrahedrite Isometric (Cu,Fe)12Sb4S13. 1.816 4.01 7.5
Tektite Brown Amorphous Metroite: Glass 1.49 – 1.53 2.36 – 2.51 5 the Metor’s Falls from Australia to Zanzbar
Tektite Libian Desart Amorphous Metroite: Glass 1.46 2.21 5 Libia
Tektite Moldavite Amorphous Metroite: Glass 1.48 – 1.50 2.34 – 2.39 5 Czech Republic
Thaumasite Hexagonal Ca6 Si2 (CO3)2 (SO4)2 (OH)12 24H2 O 1.45-1.50 1.9 3.5 San Bernardino County, California U.S.A.
Thenardite Orthorhomic Na2SO4 1.46-1.48 2.7 2.5 – 3 2.5 – 3 Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, California.U.S.A.
Thomsonite Orthorhomic NaCa2Al5Si5O20•6(H2O). 1.52 – 1.54 0.028 Positive B 2-3 – 2.4 5 U.S.A
Thorite Trigonal ThSiO4. 4 – 6.7 4.5 – 5 U.S.A
Thulite Orthorhomic (Ca,Mn)2Al3(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). 1.700 – 1.706 0.006 Negative B 3.09 – 3.12 6 Austia
Tilleyite Monoclinic Ca5Si2O7(CO3)2 1.60-1.65 5.50 5.5 U.S.A
Titanite Monoclinic (Ti0.88 1.84-2.11 3.3 – 3.6 5 – 5.5 ALLEMAGNE, Morocco
Topaz Blue Orthorhomic Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. 1.610 – 1.20 0.01 Positive B 3.56 8 Brazil
Topaz Colerless Orthorhomic Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. 1.630 – 1.638 0.008 Positive B 3.53 8 Nigeria, Sri Lanka
Topaz Pink Orthorhomic Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. 1.630 – 1.638 0.008 Positive B 3.53 8 Brazil
Topaz Yellow Orthorhomic Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. 1.630 – 1.638 0.008 Positive B 3.53 8 Brazil
Tourmailine Vanadium Trigonal SiOz, Al:Oa, CaO, K2O, TiO2, MnO, Cr:Oa and BaO. MgO and PzOs 1.616 – 1.634 0.014 Negitive U 3.00 – 3.12 Tanzania
Tourmailine Chrome Trigonal 3.06 7 Brazil
Tourmaline Trigonal (Na,Ca) (Mg,Li,Al,Fe2+,Fe3+)3 (Al,Mg,Cr)6 B3 Si6 (OH,O,F)4 3.06 7 Brazil
Tourmaline Cat eye Trigonal (Na,Ca) (Mg,Li,Al,Fe2+,Fe3+)3 (Al,Mg,Cr)6 B3 Si6 (OH,O,F)4 3.06 7 Brazil
Tourquoise Triclinic CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8•4(H2O). 1.61 – 1.65 0.04 Positive B 2.6 – 2.85 5.5 – 6 Pursia ( Iran )
Tremolite Monoclinic Ca2 (Mg,Fe+2)5 Si8 O22 (OH)2 1.60 – 1.62 0.02 Negative B 2.98 5.5 – 6 Swizerland, New York USA
Triphane Monoclinic LiAlSi2O6 1.660-1.681 3.18 5.6 – 7 Pakistan
Triphylite Orthorhombic LiFe++PO4 1.689-1.702 3.58 4 — 5 Congo
Triplite monoclinic (Mn,Fe)2(PO4)(F,OH) 3.55-3.87 5-5.5
Trona Monoclinic Na3(CO3)(HCO3)•2(H2O). 1.41-1.54 3.99 -4.02 9 Turkey
Tugtupite Trigonal Na4AlBeSi4O12Cl 1.496-1.502 2.36 4 Grenland
Tychite Isometeric octahedral crystal Na6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4) 2.58 2.5 Uganda
Ulexite Television Stone Monoclinic NaCaB5O6(OH)6-5H2O 1.49-1.51 2.9 – 3. 7 Turkey
Ulexite Cat Eye Triclinic NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O). 1.51 2.9 – 3. 7 Turkey
Ussingite Triclinic Na2AlSi3O8(OH). 1.504-1.545 2.48 6.5 Kola Pen. RUSSIA
Vanadinite Hexagonal Pb5 (VO4)3 Cl 2.35-2.41 6.7-7.2 2.5-3 Mexico
Variscite Orthorhombic AlPO4•2(H2O). 1.56-1.59 2.57 3.5 MESSBACH, PLAUEN, VOITLAND-SAXE; ALLEMAGNE
Vayrynenite monoclinic MeBe(PO$)(OH,F) 3.183-3.215 5
Verdite Monoclinic 1.58 2.5 – 2.65 3 Central African Republic, and Togo
Villiaumite Isometric Hexoctahedral 1.326 2.79-2.8 2.5
Violane Trigonal Fe2O3 1.67 – 1.70 0.03 Positive B 3.23 5.5 U.S.A.
Vivianite Monoclinic Fe++3(PO4)2•8(H2O). 1.580 – 1.627 2.58 – 2.68 1.5 – 2 AGNES, CORNOUAILLES; ANGLETERRE
Vlasovite Monoclinic Na2ZrSi4O11. 1.67-1.70 2.97 6 LOVOZERO, PENINSULE DE KOLA; RUSSIE
Wardite Trigonal NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4•2(H2O). 1.580-1.627 2.8 5 Clay Canyon, Fairfield, Utah County, Utah, USA.
Weloganite Trigonal Sr3Na2Zr(CO3)6•3(H2O). 1.60-1.62 6.1 3 MICHEL, ILE DE MONTREAL, QUEBEC; Country of Origin/Pays : CANADA
Wernerite Tetragonal 1.59-1.60 2.5 – 2.7 5.5 – 6 Grenville, Quebec Canada
Whewellite Monoclinic Ca(C2O4)•(H2O). 1.55-1.64 2.23 2.5 Germany
Willemite Trigonal Zn2SiO4 1.570-1.549 0.028 Positive U 3.89 – 4.18 5.5 U.S.A. Namibia
Witherite Orthorhombic BaCO3. 1.532 – 1.680 0.148 Negative B 4.27 – 4.35 3.5 U.S.A. United Kindom
Wollastonite Monoclinic CaSiO3 1.574 3.04 – 3.17 5 — 6 Canada
Wulfenite Tetragonal PbMoO4 2.304 – 2.402 6.7 – 7.0 2.5 – 3 U.S.A. , Mexico Russia, Namibia
Yugawaralite monoclinic 1.512-1.532 1.515-1.542 2.23 4.5
Zincite Tetragonal (Zn,Mn)O 2.304 – 2.402 5.66 4 – 4.5 New Jersey Franklin U.S.A.
Zircon High Tetragonal ZrSiO4. 1.95 – 1.984 4.67 – 4.7 7-7.5 Sri Lanka Madagascar Australia Thailand, Nepal, Namibia, Myanmar, Kenia India, Tanzania
Zircon Low Tetragonal ZrSiO4. 1.78 – 1.81 I 3.95 – 4.10 6.5 Sri Lanka Madagascar Australia Thailand, Nepal, Namibia, Myanmar, Kenia India, Tanzania
Zoisite Triclinic Ca2Al3(SiO4)3(OH) = Ca2AlAl2(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). 1.696 – 1700 0.006 – 0.018 I 3.10 – 3.36 6 –7 Tanzania
Zultanite Tetragonal MnO 1.20-3 Positive B 3.29 5.5 Turkey
Stone Name: Crystal System: Chemical Composition: R.I. Birefringence: Optic Sign Optic character S.G: H: Pleochrism: Country of Origin:
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